OSTN

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(Legal/Regulatory Concerns)
(Project Output: peering document)
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*[[OSTN Compliance Specification]]
*[[OSTN Compliance Specification]]
*[[OSTN Compliant Services]]
*[[OSTN Compliant Services]]
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*[[The challenges with secure cross-domain calling]]
*[https://guardianproject.info/tag/ostn/ OSTN blog posts on Guardian Project Blog]
*[https://guardianproject.info/tag/ostn/ OSTN blog posts on Guardian Project Blog]
*[https://github.com/guardianproject/OSTel https://github.com/guardianproject/OSTel]
*[https://github.com/guardianproject/OSTel https://github.com/guardianproject/OSTel]
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|-
|-
| [[Twinkle]]
| [[Twinkle]]
-
|  
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| [[Twinkle|In Progress]]
| GPL
| GPL
| TLS, ZRTP, SRTP
| TLS, ZRTP, SRTP
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|-
|-
| [[Jitsi]]
| [[Jitsi]]
-
|  
+
| [[Jitsi|In Progress]]
| open-source
| open-source
| TLS, ZRTP, SRTP
| TLS, ZRTP, SRTP
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| Linux
| Linux
| [http://sflphone.org/ http://sflphone.org/]
| [http://sflphone.org/ http://sflphone.org/]
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|-
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| [[PrivateGSM]]
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|  
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|  
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| TLS, ZRTP, SRTP
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| Blackberry, Nokia, iPhone, Android
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| [http://www.privatewave.com/products-services/private-gsm/product.html http://www.privatewave.com/]
|-
|-
| [[PhonerLite]]
| [[PhonerLite]]
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*[[GNU Sipwitch]]
*[[GNU Sipwitch]]
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=== Hosted SIP/VoIP Services ===
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=== Hosted VoIP Services ===
{| style="width: 500px" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
{| style="width: 500px" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
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| <br/>
| <br/>
|}
|}
-
 
=== Legal/Regulatory Concerns ===
=== Legal/Regulatory Concerns ===
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In [http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/voice/.../VoIP_LatinAmerica_Nathaly_Rey.pdf Latin America more broadly], VoIP was apparently illegal as of 2007 in Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay and Costa Rica (for international calls). However, the practical efficacy of government restrictions on VoIP seems generally low; VoIP services are widely available in Bolivian Internet cafes, for instance.
In [http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/voice/.../VoIP_LatinAmerica_Nathaly_Rey.pdf Latin America more broadly], VoIP was apparently illegal as of 2007 in Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay and Costa Rica (for international calls). However, the practical efficacy of government restrictions on VoIP seems generally low; VoIP services are widely available in Bolivian Internet cafes, for instance.
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''Armenia/Azerbaijan''
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''Armenia''
   
   
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In [http://opennet.net/research/profiles/armenia#footnote29_9oc44z4 Armenia], VoIP services are legal, but their providers must be authorized by the [http://www.psrc.am/en/?nid=198 Public Services Regulatory Commission]; many operators use the infrastructure of the formerly state-run and now-privatized telecommunications company ArmenTel without charge for VoIP, leading to fricton. [http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#am Internet penetration] was at 47.1% of the population at the end of 2011, up from just under 6% in 2008.
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In [http://opennet.net/research/profiles/armenia#footnote29_9oc44z4 Armenia], VoIP services are legal, but their providers must be authorized by the [http://www.psrc.am/en/?nid=198 Public Services Regulatory Commission]; many operators use the infrastructure of the formerly state-run and now-privatized telecommunications company ArmenTel without charge for VoIP, leading to fricton. [http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#am Internet penetration] was at 47.1% of the population at the end of 2011, up from just under 6% in 2008. 3G service is [http://www.panarmenian.net/eng/news/75551/ available] in most major centers via ArmenTel; mobile provider VivaCell-MTS conducted a [http://www.huliq.com/10557/4g-mobile-services-coming-armenia pilot project] in 2011 providing 4G mobile access.
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''Azerbaijan''
As of 2010, Azeri VoIP services are legal, but required to be [http://http://opennet.net/research/profiles/azerbaijan licensed]. The main telecommunications regulator in Azerbaijan is the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies (MCIT). A variety of providers (the main land line provider and government-owned AzTelecom, the main mobile provider Azercell, Azeronline, Azerfone, Adanet, and the chief ISP AzEuroTel) offer telecom and internet service. Azerfone's 3G network was deployed in Baku and other urban centers in late 2009; Azercell and Bakcell were granted 3G licenses in [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/newslog/Azercell+And+Bakcell+Receive+3G+Licenses+Azerbaijan.aspx late 2011]. In March of 2012, Azercell received a license for 4G service to begin in [http://netprophet.tol.org/2012/02/17/4g-is-comming-to-azerbaijan-in-may/ May of 2012]; however, uptake of 3G service from these providers is low (under 25% of users). At the end of 2011, [http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#az overall Internet penetration] was 44.1% of the population.
As of 2010, Azeri VoIP services are legal, but required to be [http://http://opennet.net/research/profiles/azerbaijan licensed]. The main telecommunications regulator in Azerbaijan is the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies (MCIT). A variety of providers (the main land line provider and government-owned AzTelecom, the main mobile provider Azercell, Azeronline, Azerfone, Adanet, and the chief ISP AzEuroTel) offer telecom and internet service. Azerfone's 3G network was deployed in Baku and other urban centers in late 2009; Azercell and Bakcell were granted 3G licenses in [http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/newslog/Azercell+And+Bakcell+Receive+3G+Licenses+Azerbaijan.aspx late 2011]. In March of 2012, Azercell received a license for 4G service to begin in [http://netprophet.tol.org/2012/02/17/4g-is-comming-to-azerbaijan-in-may/ May of 2012]; however, uptake of 3G service from these providers is low (under 25% of users). At the end of 2011, [http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#az overall Internet penetration] was 44.1% of the population.
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''Australia''
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VoIP access in Australia is widespread, [www.acma.gov.au/.../main/.../changes_in_australian_voip_market.pdf with over 250 providers as of 2009] according to the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA); in the recent Ipsos survey, 10% of users surveyed had used VoIP services within the last three months. According to the ACMA, VoIP providers are considered [http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311047 Carriage Service Providers (CSPs)] under Australian law, and are regulated by the Telecommunications Act of 1997 and the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act of 1999.
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While the Australian Internet content filtering regime is quite restrictive ''vis a vis'' comparable countries, the widespread provision of VoIP services has not been deterred - for instance, the number of Australian Skype users increased from 876,000 unique users to 1.01 million unique users between June 2008 and June 2009, according to the ACMA. Among the requirements VoIP providers are subject to by law are provisions relating to "public interest obligations," including "Law Enforcement (interception and national interests)." It is unclear how VoIP services might directly be affected by these provisions, though at minimum they allow warrants for the collection of IP addresses and other UDIDs.
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''Burma (Myanmar)''
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The legal status and practical reality of VoIP services in Burma are currently in a state of flux mirroring that of the country's politics. Only two to three million people have mobile service; internet penetration, and particularly broadband penetration, is extremely low (only between [http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm#mm 100,000] and [http://opennet.net/research/profiles/burma 300,000] users by recent estimates. Under the Computer Science Development Law of 1996 and the Electronic Transactions Law of 2004, computers must be registered with the state telecom  Myanmar Teleport (MMT); Service is provided by MMT and Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT). Internet use is heavily concentrated in Rangoon and in the capital Napidaw; many access Internet through Public Access Centers (PACs) and internet cafes, both licensed and unlicensed. While data reporting requirements and surveillance on these access points is heavy and crackdown-prone, many cafes skirt these regulations.
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Internet surveillance and censorship has been endemic in Myanmar in the past decade, and as recently as last year, VoIP services faced significant resistance from the Burmese government. The web portals for services like Google, GMail and Skype have been intermittently blocked by the main Burmese ISPs [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1069831001.html since 20006];  in March of 2011, the ruling junta declared VoIP services [http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=20949 illegal] under existing telecom law, and initiated a crackdown of internet cafes that provided such [http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=21092 services] for a fee.
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Recent (2012) trends towards some political and economic liberalization may change the legal and regulatory status of VoIP in Burma. As of April 2012, the government is considering a new telecommunications law that would open the Myanmar telecom market (including mobile and internet) to [http://www.zdnetasia.com/myanmar-telco-market-attractive-but-dangers-abound-62304490.htm foreign competition]. However, it is unclear whether these developments will affect the legality of VoIP services, and whether the government will continue to work to suppress them.
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''Kenya''
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VoIP services were legalized in Kenya [http://web.ita.doc.gov/ITI/itiHome.nsf/.../voip%20worldwide%202009.pdf in 2004] in tandem with the end of the former main telecom operator Telkom Kenya's monopoly; prior to legalization, there was a large "grey market" of illegal providers that came into conflict with Telkom Kenya, which attempted to block VoIP traffic over its network. Kenya has a 25% Internet [http://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#ke penetration rate].
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VoIP usage has grown rapidly in Kenya since legalization and the issuing of [http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/en/issue-no-269/internet/kenyas-cck-issues-gu/en regulations for VoIP] - for instance, incoming calls to mobile phones using VoIP [http://www.cck.go.ke/resc/statistics/Sector_Ststistics_Report_Q2_0809.pdf increased 2300%] between the first and second quarters of 2008. In September of 2011, the Kenyan government announced it was seeking partners to develop a [af.reuters.com/article/investingNews/idAFJOE78407620110905 4G network]; Safaricom currently operates a 3G network on the country.
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=== User Survey ===
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[[Ostel User Survey]]
=== Useful Resources ===  
=== Useful Resources ===  

Revision as of 19:28, 4 May 2012

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